Hébert, Jacques René (1757-1794): French Revolutionary and Journalist . In his journal, Hébert assumed the voice of a patriotic sans-culotte named Père Duchesne and would write first-person narratives in which Père Duchesne would often relay fictitious conversations that he had with the French monarchs or government officials. And so the King and Queen were dead as well as thousands of other “Enemies of the republic.”  There were now two governments in France; the Commune or the government of Paris and the Convention, the elected government o France. By identifying Marie Antoinette's lavish excesses and alleged sexuality as the core of the monarchy's problems, Hébert's articles suggested that, if Marie Antoinette would change her ways and renounce aristocratic excesses, then the monarchy could be saved and the queen could return to the good will of the people. His widow was executed twenty days later on 13 April 1794, and her corpse was disposed of in the Errancis Cemetery. Jacques René Hébert (French: ; 15 November 1757 – 24 March 1794) was a French journalist and the founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution.. Hébert was a leader of the French Revolution and had thousands of followers as the Hébertists (French Hébertistes); he himself is sometimes called Père Duchesne, after his newspaper. Here is some background before we look at Danton’s famous speech. Review of Revolution in Print: The Press in France, by Robert Darton, Daniel Roche; Naissance du Journal Revolutionnaire, by Claude Labrosse, Pierre Retat; La Revolution du Journal, by Pierre Retat; Revolutionary News; The Press in France, by Jeremy D. Popkin. Where others see a calculating opportunism running through Danton’s revolution, Lawday sees a man free from ‘demon ideals’ and driven by ‘impetuosity and heart’. “We thought that Hébert would have more courage but he died like a Jean-Foutre,” said another, suggesting a keen sense of poetic justice. On November 10, 1793 Notre Dame cathedral was converted to the “Temple of Reason.”  A ceremony that day included a dancer from the opera, wearing the tricolor, sitting as the “Goddess of Reason” upon the “Altar of Liverty.”  After this many churches were changed to “Temples of Reason.’. French revolutionary historians such as Jean-Paul Bertraud, Jeremy D. Popkin, and William J. Murray each investigated French Revolutionary press history and determined that while the newspapers and magazines that one read during the revolution may have influenced their political leanings, it did not necessarily create their political leanings. Revolutionary Tribunal, preside over complicated cases of ordinary citizens, dangerous criminals, and enemies of the revolution in revolutionary Paris. It was purposely anti-Christian.  The Christian era was repudiated. The trend toward secularization had already begun to take hold throughout France during the eighteenth century; however, between September 1793 and August 1794, French politicians began discussing and embracing notions of "radical dechristianization. My daughter and her hubby moved last November into a district where the public schools are considered excellent. The French Revolution (1789-1799) The Revolution describes the trial of Gearges Danton. The trial was a mockery, and Danton was guillotined. We. His corpse was disposed of in the Madeleine Cemetery. Compared with Hébert's somewhat popular festivals, this austere new religion of Virtue was received with signs of hostility by the Parisian public. This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. Robespierre then came into conflict with another prominent deputy, Georges Jacques Danton. Seems a number of sentences had gotten lost before posting. Kaiser, Thomas. Make judgments, plot political intrigue, and try to not lose your own head!-65%. Where he got the financial resources to support his lifestyle is unclear; however, there are Jean-Nicolas Pache's commissions to print thousands of issues of Le Père Duchesne and his relationship to Delaunay d'Angers, mistress and wife of Andres Maria de Guzman. He was fired for stealing. In these countries an ever stronger commercialism developed. The counter-revolution might have been already victorious by the spring of 1794, but the committees decided to deal a blow to the Right, and to sacrifice Danton. In order to combat a return to monarchy a new constitution was written – the 3rd in 6 years.  The previous constitution was deemed “to anarchical.”    Universal male suffrage was abandoned.  Suffrage was again to be based on property.  There was practically no protest.  The example of American states was quoted, none of which had universal suffrage.  The legislature would consist of two chambers, the example of America again cited.  It was to consist of a Council of Elders, 250 members who had to  be married or widowers and the Council of the Five Hundred, who had to be at least 30. Georges Jacques Danton (26 October 1759 – 5 April 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety.Danton's role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as "the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic". Their execution by guillotine took place on 24 March 1794. Hebert was executed at the Place de la Revolution in a batch of 20 fellow-radicals, among whom we also find the eloquent “orator of mankind,” anticlerical† wordsmith Anacharsis Cloots. The revolutionists led in part by Marat, Danton, Saint-Just, Hébert, Robespierre unleashed a horrible monster, a monster that, in the end, they could not control, for as Pierre Vergniaud said, “The revolution, like Saturn, is devouring its’ own children.” We have already seen that … The French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent a radical change into forms based on the Enlightenment principles of democracy, citizenship, and inalienable rights. We know where it went – he was buying up land in Arcis. Wajda barely touches on these historical facts, however, except for Danton’s execution, focusing instead on the conflict between Robespierre and Danton. This put him in the revolutionary mindset, and the Le Père Duchesne adopted a sloppier style to better appeal to the masses. Republic, the choice would have been Danton.1 Bringing the story nearer to our own time, that is, to the eve of World War II, we venture to say that Robespierre would be preferred. Lawday celebrates Danton's compassion but it had its limits. He wouldn't lift a finger to save the ultra-left Jacques Hébert and his followers when they were guillotined in March 1794. "More than Words: The Printing Press and the French Revolution". Le Père Duchesne began to attack Lafayette, Mirabeau, and Bailly. About This Game We. On 20 May 1793 the moderate majority of the National Convention formed the Special Commission of Twelve, which was designed to investigate and prosecute conspirators. Following King Louis XVI's unsuccessful flight in June 1791, Danton was among those who called for the creation of a republic, and his speeches were considered responsible f… The French linguist and historian Ferdinand Brunot called Hébert "The Homer of filth" because of his ability to use common language to appeal to general audiences[4] In addition, Père Duchesne's appearance played into the tensions of the revolution through the sharp contrast of his clothing and portrayal as a laborer against the crown and aristocracy's formal attire. Its leader was Jacques Hebert who published a newspaper which was both obscene and profane and which was widely read in Paris by the lowest classes. The evidence was marshalled in Norman Hampson’s 1978 biography, a wry, spare and careful assessment. We know where it went – he was buying up land in Arcis. I dearly wish public schools had teachers with passion. Street hawkers would yell: Il est bougrement en colère aujourd’hui le père Duchesne! After Napoleon, France would be ruled by a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII. [12] On 21 October 1793 a law was passed which made all suspected priests and all persons who harbored them liable to death on sight. 1. It is difficult to ascertain the extent to which Hébert's publication Le Père Duchesne impacted the outcomes of political events between 1790 and 1794. When arrested, he commented “I would rather be guillotined than guillotine.”  In prison, he said “Not one of them has any concept of government; Robespierre will follow me.  I would rather be a poor fisherman than meddle in the governing of men.”. The 500 would propse laws and the Elders would accept and ratify them before they could be enacted.  The executive would be the Directorate, consisting of 5 persons at least 40 years old elected by the councils, one retiring each year.  France was not ready for a single President. French revolutionary leader Introduction in full Georges Jacques Danton born October 26, 1759, Arcis sur Aube, France died April 5, 1794, Paris French Revolutionary (French Revolution) leader and orator, often credited as the chief force in… The counter-revolution might have been already victorious by the spring of 1794, but the committees decided to deal a blow to the Right, and to sacrifice Danton. It invoked various questions and patterns of Revolutionary thinking and inspired various forms of writing such as Le Père Duchesne. “These men, greedy for the power they are accumulating, have concocted and pompously spread the word of ultra-revolution, to destroy the friends of the people who watch over their plots – as if one person were allowed to set the limits of the national will.” Jacques Hébert on the Committee of Public Safety, early 1794 There he found work in a theater, la République, where he wrote plays in his spare time, but these were never produced. ... We had four kids together and buried two together. The order was to arrest the leaders of the Hébertists; these included individuals in the War Ministry and others. Clear and vivid pictures emerge in this book about the main participants in the French Revolution. The storm broke on July 27, 1794, the 9th of Thermidor.  Robespierre attempted to speak to the conventionwhich had cowered under him. Wajda’s Danton: a film that some of you must have seen.I believe the annoying voice of the historian must be heard, once again: this film is no sheer amusement, it is politics. He then entered the service of a doctor. Revolution to its just, natural conclusion. “This man, who had personified as no one else had done the national temper in is crusade against the allied monarchs, who had been the very central pillar of the state in a terrible crisis, who, when France was for a moment discouraged, had nerved her to new effort by the electrifying cry, “We must dare and dare again and dare without end!” now fell a victim to the wretched and frenzied internecine struggles of politicians because now that the danger was passed over, he advocated with his vastly heightened prestige a return to moderation and concilliation.”. Danton believed in the terror when he thought it was necessary and now believed the time for it had passed.  The armies of the republic had been everywhere victorious and domestic insurrections had been stamped out.  The Dantonists were now advocating clemency in the Convention halls.  The Committee of Public Safety was opposed to both the Hebertists and the followers of Danton. Despite his view that the monarchy could be restored, Hébert was skeptical of the queen's willingness to do so and often characterized her as an evil enemy of the people by referring to Marie Antoinette as "Madame Veto" and even addressing Louis XVI as "drunken and lazy; a cuckolded pig". Soon after the committee had eliminated the extremists under Jacques René Hébert, it turned upon Danton and the Indulgents or moderates. [2], These stories encouraged violent behaviors and utilized foul language; Père Duchesne's stories were also witty, reflective, and resonated deeply with Parisian workers. Opinion, after 1852, would have been divided among Hébert, Danton and Robespierre. A little known Corsican officer who two years before had recovered Toulon for the republic defended the convention, placing his cannon around the Tuileries.  At four thirty in the afternoon on the 13th of Vendemiare (October 5th) as two columns of insurgents approached a violent cannonading was heard. 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